It will help to be familiar with Periodontal Disease prior to reading this section.  

Scaling and Root Planing is the first phase of treatment in periodontal disease.  Due to deep pocketing around teeth, it is essential to clean to the depths of these to remove an offending bacteria and calculus.  In order to do this, scaling and root planing is done.  Patients are given local anesthesia and are numb throughout the procedure.  During the procedure, which will feel similar to a normal cleaning, the hygienist or doctor cleans to the depth of your pockets and smooths the root surface.  This reduces inflammation, allows for tissue to reattach to the tooth, reduces bacterial adhesion to root surface and allows for easier oral hygiene.  

   Scaling and Root Planing

Scaling and Root Planing, as you might expect, cannot solve all periodontal problems, and it is often necessary to perform additional treatment, which is discussed in the Periodontal Disease section.